地震發生時使用生命三角保命

Posted: 2010/03/15 in 學術

轉載-生命三角–地震中的自救竅門

作者在講述2001年參與911搶救的經歷 Journal
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生命三角–地震中的自救竅門
作者﹕道格•庫普

My
name is Doug Copp. I am the Rescue Chief and Disaster Manager of the
American Rescue Team International (ARTI), the world’s most experienced
rescue team. The information in this article will save lives in an
earthquake.

我的名字叫道格•庫普(Doug
Copp)。我是世界上最有經驗的救援小組—美國國際救援小組(ARTI)的首席救援者,也是災難部的經理。本文中以下信息能在地震中挽救生命。

I
have crawled inside 875 collapsed buildings, worked with rescue teams
from 60 countries, founded rescue teams in several countries, and I am a
member of many rescue teams from many countries. I was the United
Nations expert in Disaster Mitigation (UNX051 -UNIENET) for two years. I
have worked at every major disaster in the world since 1985, except for
simultaneous disasters.

我和曾經來自60多個不同國家成立的各種救援小組一起工作過,曾在
875個倒塌的建築物裡爬進爬出。在聯合國災難減輕(UNX051-UNIENET)小組中我擔任了任期兩年的專家。從1985年至今,除非同時發生了多
個災禍,我幾乎參與了每一次重大的救援工作。

In 1996 we made a
film which proved my survival methodology to be correct. The Turkish
Federal Government, City of Istanbul , University of Istanbul , Case
Productions and ARTI cooperated to film this practical, scientific test.

在1996
年,我們用我創立的而且被證明是正確的方法製作了一部電影。土耳其政府、伊斯坦布爾市、伊斯坦布爾大學、及ARTI聯合製作了這部科學研究性的影片。

We collapsed a school and a home with 20 mannequins
inside. Ten mannequins did "duck and cover," and ten mannequins I used
in my "triangle of life" survival method.

我們人為地摧毀了一座學校,和一
個裡面有20個人體模特的房屋。十個人體模特用"蹲下和掩護"的方法,而另外十個模特使用我的"生命三角"的求生方法。

After the simulated earthquake collapse we crawled
through the rubble and entered the building to film and document the
results.

模擬地震發生後,我們通過倒塌的碎石慢慢進入了建築物,並拍攝和記錄了結果。

The film, in which I practiced my survival techniques
under directly observable, scientific conditions, relevant to building
collapse, showed there would have been zero percent survival for those
doing duck and cover. There would likely have been 100 % survivability
for people using my method of the "triangle of life." This film has been
seen by millions of viewers on television in Turkey and the rest of
Europe, and it was seen in the USA , Canada and Latin America on the TV
program Real TV.

在一個在可直接觀察到的而且科學的條件下,這部電影拍攝了我使用的求生技術。結果顯示
那些用"蹲下和和掩護"方法的人存活率會是零,而那些使用"生命三角"的人能夠達到100%的存活率。上百萬的人已經在土耳其和歐洲的其他地方,還有美
國、加拿
大和拉丁美洲的電視節目裡看到過這部片子。

The first
building I ever crawled inside of was a school in Mexico City during the
1985 earthquake. Every child was under their desk. Every child was
crushed to the thickness of their bones. They could have survived by
lying down next to their desks in the aisles. It was obscene,
unnecessary and I wondered why the children were not in the aisles. I
didn’t at the time know that the children were told to hide under
something.

我曾進入的第一個建築物是 在1985
年墨西哥地震中的一個學校。每個孩子都在課桌底下。每個孩子都被壓扁了。他們如果能在走道裡挨著他們的課桌躺下,就有生還的希望。我不知道為什麼孩子不在
走道裡。那時,我不知道孩子們被教導要躲在某物體的下面。

Simply
stated, when buildings collapse, the weight of the ceilings falling upon
the objects or furniture inside crushes these objects, leaving a space
or void next to them. This space is what I call the "triangle of life".
The larger the object, the stronger, the less it will compact. The less
the object compacts, the larger the void, the greater the probability
that the person who is using this void for safety will not be injured.


單地說,當建築物倒塌時,落在物體或傢俱上的屋頂的重力會撞擊這些物體,使得靠近它們的地方留下一個空間。這個空間就是被我稱作的"生命三角"。物體越
大,越堅固,它被擠壓的餘地就越小。而物體被擠壓得越小,這個空間就越大,於是利用這
個空間的人免於受傷的可能性就越大。

The next time you watch collapsed buildings, on
television, count the "triangles" you see formed. They are everywhere.
It is the most common shape, you will see, in a collapsed building. They
are everywhere. I trained the Fire Department of Trujillo (population
750,000) in how to survive, take care of their families, and to rescue
others in earthquakes.

下次,你在電視裡觀看倒塌的建築物時,數一數這些形成的"三角"。你會發現
到處都有這些三角。在倒塌的建築物裡,這是最常見的形狀。幾乎到處都有。我培訓 Trujillo
(人口約為750,000的地方)的消防部門,教導人們如何求生,如何照顧他們的家人,以及如何在地震中援救他人。

The chief of rescue in the Trujillo Fire Department is a
professor at Trujillo University . He accompanied me everywhere. He
gave personal testimony: "My name is Roberto Rosales. I am Chief of
Rescue in Trujillo . When I was 11 years old, I was trapped inside of a
collapsed building. My entrapment occurred during the earthquake of 1972
that killed 70,000 people. I survived in the "triangle of life" that
existed next to my brother’s motorcycle. My friends who got under the
bed and under desks were crushed to death …I am the living example of
the "triangle of life". My dead friends are the example of "duck and
cover".
Trujillo

消防部門的救援總負責人是Trujillo大學的教授。他陪伴我同行,他說:"
我叫Roberto
Rosales,我是Trujillo的首席救援者。我11歲時,我被陷在一幢倒塌的建築物裡。就是發生在1972年的那場地震中,當時有70,000人
死亡。我利用我哥哥摩托車旁的"生命三角"保住了生命。我的朋友們,那些躲在床下,桌子下的人都死了。(他列出了這些人的姓名、地址……)。我可以稱作是
"生命三角"的活生生的例子,而我那些朋友是"蹲下和掩護"的例子。

Tips
from Doug Copp:
道格•庫普的提示:
1)
Everyone who simply "ducks and covers" WHEN BUILDINGS COLLAPSE is
crushed to death — Every time, without exception. People who get under
objects, like desks or cars, are always crush.

當建築物倒下時,每個
只是簡單地"蹲下和掩護"的人都被壓死了,每次,毫無例外。而那些躲逃到物體,如桌子,或汽車下躲避的人也總是受到了些傷害。

2) Cats, dogs and babies all naturally often curl up in
the fetal position. You should too in an earthquake. It is a natural
safety/survival instinct. You can survive in a smaller void. Get next to
an object, next to a sofa, next to a large bulky object that will
compress slightly but leave a void next to it.

貓,狗和小孩子在遇到
危險的時候,會自然地蜷縮起身體。地震時,你也應該這麼做。這是一種安全的本能。而且你在一個很小的空間裡就可以做到。靠近一個物體,一個沙發,或一個大
件,它僅受到了略微的擠壓,但在靠著它旁邊的地方留下了一個空間。

3) Wooden
buildings are the safest type of construction to be in during an
earthquake. The reason is simple: the wood is flexible and moves with
the force of the earthquake. If the wooden building does collapse, large
survival voids are created. Also, the wooden building has less
concentrated, crushing weight. Brick buildings will break into
individual bricks. Bricks will cause many injuries but less squashed
bodies than concrete slabs.

在地震中,木質建築物最牢固。木頭具有彈性,並且與地震的力量一
起移動。如果木質建築物倒塌了,會留出很大的生存空間。而且,木質材料密度最小,重量最小。磚塊材料則會破碎成一塊塊更小的磚。
磚塊會造成人員受傷,但是,被磚塊壓傷的人遠比被水泥壓傷的人數則要少得多。

4)
If you are in bed during the night and an earthquake occurs, simply
roll off the bed. A safe void will exist around the bed.


果晚上生發了地震,而你正在床上。你只要簡單地滾下床。在床的周圍會形成一個安全的空間。

5)
If an earthquake happens while you are watching television and you
cannot easily escape by getting out the door or window, then lie down
and curl up in the fetal position next to a sofa, or large chair.

如果地震發生了,而你正在看電視,不能迅速地從門或窗口逃離,那就在靠近沙發,或椅子的旁邊躺下,然後蜷縮起來。

6) Everybody who gets under a doorway when buildings
collapse is killed. How? If you stand under a doorway and the door jam
falls forward or backward you will be crushed by the ceiling above. If
the door jam falls sideways you will be cut in half by the doorway. In
either case, you will be killed!

當大樓倒塌時,很多人在門口死亡了。怎麼回事?如果
你站在門框下,當門框向前或向後倒下時,你會被頭頂上的屋頂砸傷。如果門框向側面倒下,你會被壓在當中, 所以,不管怎麼樣,你都會受到致命傷害!

7) Never go to the stairs. The stairs have a different
"moment of
frequency" (they swing separately from the main part of
the building). The stairs and remainder of the building continuously
bump into each other until structural failure of the stairs takes place.
The people who get on stairs before they fail are chopped up by the
stair treads – horribly mutilated. Even if the building doesn’t
collapse, stay away from the stairs. The stairs are a likely part of the
building to be damaged. Even if the stairs are not collapsed by the
earthquake, they may collapse later when overloaded by fleeing people.
They should always be checked for safety, even when the rest of the
building is not damaged.

千萬不要走樓梯,樓梯與建築物搖晃的頻率不同(他們和建築物
的主體部份分別晃動)。樓梯和大樓的結構物發生不斷地碰撞,直到樓梯發生構造問題。人在樓梯上時,會被樓梯的台階割斷,這是很恐怖的毀傷!就算樓梯沒有倒
塌,也要遠離樓梯。樓梯就像大樓的一樣會被損壞。哪怕不是因為地震而倒,還會因為承受過多的人群而坍塌。所以,我們應該始終首先檢查樓梯的安全,甚至建築
物的其他部份並沒有被損壞。

8) Get Near the Outer Walls
Of Buildings Or Outside Of Them If Possible. It is much better to be
near the outside of the building rather than the interior. The farther
inside you are from the outside perimeter of the building the greater
the probability that your escape route will be blocked.


量靠近建築物的外牆或離開建築物。靠近牆的外側遠比內側要好。你越靠近建築物的中心,你的逃生路徑被阻擋的可能性就越大。

9) People inside of their vehicles are crushed when the
road above falls in an earthquake and crushes their vehicles; which is
exactly what happened with the slabs between the decks of the Nimitz
Freeway. The victims of the San Francisco earthquake all stayed inside
of their vehicles. They were all killed. They could have easily survived
by getting out and sitting or lying next to their vehicles, says the
author. Everyone killed would have survived if they had been able to get
out of their cars and sit or lie next to them. All the crushed cars had
voids 3 feet high next to them, except for the cars that had columns
fall directly across them.

當發生地震時,在車內逃生的人會因路邊墜落的物體砸傷,這正是
Nimitz Freeway的路上所發生的事情。San Francisco地震的無辜受害者都呆在車內。其實,他們可以簡單地離開車輛,
靠近車輛坐下,或躺在車邊就可以了。所有被壓垮的車輛旁邊都有一個3 英尺高的空間,除非車輛是被物體垂直落下。

10) I discovered, while crawling inside of collapsed
newspaper offices and other offices with a lot of paper, that paper does
not compact. Large voids are found surrounding stacks of paper.


發現,在報社或辦公室裡堆有很多報紙的地方,通常會好些,因為報紙不受擠壓。你在紙堆旁可找到一個比較大的空間。

美國國際救援小組(ARTI)網址
http://www.amerrescue.org/

更多生命三角圖片

http://images.google.com.vn/images?q=%E7%94%9F%E5%91%BD%E4%B8%89%E8%A7%92&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:zh-TW:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&ei=RuOdS43nKMuTkAWN_NnJAg&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&ct=title&resnum=4&ved=0CBkQsAQwAw

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